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Reading Comprehension

Draft Standards From The State of California Academic Standards Commission



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State of California Academic Standards Commission



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Students identify the basic facts and ideas in what they have read, heard, or viewed drawing on such strategies as generating questions and comparing information to prior knowledge.

KINDERGARTEN


2.1. use pictures and context to make predictions about story content

2.2. connect information and events in texts to life experiences

2.3. retell familiar stories

2.4. clarify meaning by asking and answering questions about essential elements of text



Students identify the basic facts and ideas in what they have read, heard, or viewed, drawing on such strategies as generating essential questions and comparing information from several sources.

GRADE 1 GRADE 2 GRADE 3 GRADE 4


Comprehension & Analysis:

2.1. respond to who, what, where, when, and how questions

2.2. follow simple written instructions

2.3. use context clues to identify word and sentence meanings

2.4. confirm predictions about what will happen next in text by "reading part that tells"

2.5. relate background knowledge to textual information

2..6. describe the central idea of simple expository information

2.7. retell clearly beginnings, middles and endings of stories

2.8. summarize simple narrative or expository passages

2.9. reread sentences when meaning is not clear



Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. identify and use sequential or logical order of elements to gain meaning from expository text

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. ask clarifying questions concerning essential textual elements of stories (why, what-if , how)

2.3. restate facts and details in text to inform and organize ideas

2.4. interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs

2.5. state a purpose for reading (i.e., tells what information s/he is looking for)

2.6. use knowledge of author's purpose(s) to comprehend text

2.7. recognize cause and effect relationships in text

2.8. note comprehension breakdown and use needed strategies to re-establish it






Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. use titles, table of contents,chapter headings, glossaries, and indexes to locate information in text

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. ask and answer how, why, and what-if questions and support answers by connecting background knowledge with literal and inferential information found in text

2.3. demonstrate comprehension by pin-pointing answers in text

2.4. summarize major points in text and make and revise predictions about coming information

2.5. distinguish between cause and effect, fact and opinion, and main idea and supporting details in expository text

2.6. contrast and compare information on the same topic found in several expository selections

2.7. point to specific words or wordings that are causing comprehension difficulties




Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. identify and use text and graphic features such as topic sentences, key words, diagrams, illustrations, charts, and maps to predict and categorize information and to gain meaning from informational materials

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. use different reading strategies to comprehend text, such as skimming and scanning and finding information to support particular ideas

2.3. know and use the functions of language (e.g., to inform, to persuade, to entertain) to comprehend text

2.4. make observations, speculate, and formulate questions in response to text

2.5. use background knowledge to make predictions, and events and ideas presented in texts (illustrations, titles, and foreshadowing clues) to confirm predictions

2.6. evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information and ideas

2.7. make inferences about text after reading several passages or articles on the same topic

Students identify, describe, and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of text by relating text structure, organization, and purpose.

GRADE 5 GRADE 6 GRADE 7 GRADE 8


Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. identify and use common expository organizational structures such as comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and chronological order to gain meaning from text

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. discern main ideas and concepts presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that supports those ideas

2.3. draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with textual evidence and experience









Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. identify and use the structural features of newspapers, magazines, and editorials (print and broadcast) to gain meaning from text

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. connect and clarify main ideas and concepts and identify their relationship to other sources and related topics

2.3. use strategies to clarify meaning such as rereading, notetaking, outlining, summarizing, and writing a report

2.4. make and support warranted and responsible assertions about text with elaborated and convincing textual evidence

Expository Critique:

2.5. distinguish among facts, supported inferences, and opinions in information sources

2.6. note instances of bias, stereotyping, unsupported inferences, fallacious reasoning, and propaganda techniques in expository text


Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. understand and use the text features that make information accessible and usable, such as format, sequence, level of diction, and supporting details

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. connect the content and ideas in a selection, identifying their relationship to one another and related topics

2.3. identify and trace the development of an author's controlling purpose, point of view or perspective in text

Expository Critique:

2.4. evaluate the coherence, logic, internal consistency, and organizational patterns in information text


Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. compare and contrast the features and elements of consumer materials (e.g., warranties, contracts, product information, and instructional manuals) to gain meaning from text

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. find similarities and differences among texts in the treatment, scope, or organization of ideas

2.3. compare original text to a summary for accuracy of the main ideas, inclusion of critical details, and the extent to which it conveys the underlying meaning of the original

Expository Critique:

2.4. assess the adequacy, accuracy, and appropriateness of an author's details to support claims and assertions (e.g., facts, illustrations, anecdotes, quotes, and imagery)



Students extract salient information and analyze the organization patterns, arguments and positions advanced.

GRADE 9 GRADE 10 GRADE 11 GRADE 12


Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. analyze the structure and format of functional workplace documents, including format, graphics, white space, headers

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. generate relevant and researchable questions about readings

2.3. analyze evidence and related generalizations that comprise an author's presentation of an argument or defense of a claim

Expository Critique:

2.4. critique the logic of functional documents such as the sequencing of information and procedures, anticipation of possible reader misunderstandings, and their visual appeal


Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. analyze text structure to discern recurrent patterns presented by an author, including repetition of key ideas, concepts, principles, and generalizations

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. synthesize the content and ideas from several books dealing with a single issue or written by a single author, producing evidence of comprehension by clarifying the ideas and connecting them to other sources and related topics

2.3. extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis, evaluation, and elaboration

Expository Critique:

2.4. evaluate the credibility of information sources, including how a writer's intent may affect text credibility, structure, and tone (e.g., professional journals, editorials, political speeches, primary source material)


Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. analyze features and rhetorical devices of different types of public documents (policy statements, speeches, debates, platforms) and how authors use the features to achieve their purposes

Comprehension & Analysis:

2.2. analyze how the patterns of organization, syntax, and word choice in text influence understanding

Expository Critique:

2.3. critique the power and logic of the arguments advanced in public documents, their appeal to audiences both friendly and hostile, and the extent to which they anticipate and address reader concerns and counterclaims (e.g., appeal to reason, appeal to authority, appeal to pathos/emotion, appeal to logic)


Structural Features of Informational Materials:

2.1. analyze how authors use the elements of nonfiction to help the general reader understand the technical concepts they present

Comprehension & Analysis

2.2. make warranted and responsible assertions about significant patterns, motifs, and perspectives, using elements of text to defend and clarify interpretations

2.3. analyze an author's implicit and explicit philosophical assumptions and beliefs about a subject

Expository Critique:

2.4. evaluate complex, implicit hierarchic structures in informational text and the relationships between the concepts and detail in those structures and how format, graphic features and organizational structure make information accessible



Credits

The Draft Standards were prepared by:

The State of California Academic Standards Commission
The Commission for the Establishment of Academic Content and Performance Standards Comments may be addressed to The Commission

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