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General Information about Cerebral Palsy

Fact Sheet Number 2 (FS2), 1997



Credits



Source

National Information Center
for Children and Youth with Disabilities

Contents

Definition of Cerebral Palsy

Incidence

Characteristics

Developmental, Educational, and Employment Implications

Resources

Organizations


Forums

Learning and Other Disabilities


Related Articles

A Parent's Guide to Accessing Programs for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Disabilities

A Guide to Children's Literature and Disability



Definition of Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a condition caused by damage to the brain, usually occurring before, during or shortly following birth. "Cerebral" refers to the brain and "palsy" to a disorder of movement or posture. It is neither progressive nor communicable. It is also not "curable" in the accepted sense, although education, therapy and applied technology can help persons with cerebral palsy lead productive lives. It is not a disease and should never be referred to as such. It can range from mild to severe.

The causes of cerebral palsy include illness during pregnancy, premature delivery, or lack of oxygen supply to the baby; or it may occur early in life as a result of an accident, lead poisoning, viral infection, child abuse, or other factors. Chief among the causes is an insufficient amount of oxygen or poor flow of blood reaching the fetal or newborn brain. This can be caused by premature separation of the placenta, an awkward birth position, labor that goes on too long or is too abrupt, or interference with the umbilical cord. Other causes may be associated with premature birth, RH or A-B-O blood type incompatibility between parents, infection of the mother with German measles or other viral diseases in early pregnancy, and microorganisms that attack the newborn's central nervous system. Lack of good prenatal care may also be a factor. A less common type is acquired cerebral palsy: head injury is the most frequent cause, usually the result of motor vehicle accidents, falls, or child abuse.

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Incidence

Between 500,000 - 700,000 Americans have some degree of cerebral palsy. About 3,000 babies are born with the disorder each year, and another 500 or so acquire it in the early years of life.

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Characteristics

There are three main types of cerebral palsy: spastic -- stiff and difficult movement; athetoid -- involuntary and uncontrolled movement; and ataxic -- disturbed sense of balance and depth perception. There may be a combination of these types for any one individual. Other types do occur, although infrequently.

Cerebral palsy is characterized by an inability to fully control motor function. Depending on which part of the brain has been damaged and the degree of involvement of the central nervous system, one or more of the following may occur: spasms; tonal problems; involuntary movement; disturbance in gait and mobility; seizures; abnormal sensation and perception; impairment of sight, hearing or speech; and mental retardation.

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Developmental, Educational, and Employment Implications

Early identification of cerebral palsy can lessen developmental problems and lead to appropriate intervention when it helps the most. Early intervention programs are family-centered in which professionals and families work together with the child in specific activities. Educators, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, speech- language pathologists, psychologists and physicians can assist families by providing information and education.

Activities for children with cerebral palsy may include:

  • speech and language therapy;
  • occupational therapy;
  • physical therapy;
  • medical intervention;
  • family support services;
  • early education; and
  • assistive technology.

As a child gets older and begins formal schooling, the intensity of services will vary from individual to individual. Persons with cerebral palsy are usually able to attain a substantial degree of independence but, in some cases, may need considerable assistance. Services for the school age child may include continuing therapy, regular or special education, counseling, technical support, community integration opportunities, recreation and possible personal attendants. A key factor seems to be a supportive family. People extensively affected by cerebral palsy can still be highly functional and independent. The HEATH Resource Center, the clearinghouse on postsecondary education for individuals with disabilities, states that a significant number of students with cerebral palsy are enrolled in colleges and universities.

Important advances have taken place in the last 15 years which have had a great effect on the long-term well-being of children born with cerebral palsy. Advanced technology, including computers and engineering devices, has been applied to the needs of persons with cerebral palsy. Technological innovations have been developed in the areas of speech and communication, self-care, and adapting living arrangements and work sites. The future may bring even more significant applications.

Another important development has been the increased ability of persons with disabilities, including those who have cerebral palsy and other severe disabilities, to live independently in the community. Adults with cerebral palsy are now living, with or without assistance, in their own apartments or townhouses. Independent Living Centers have also proven to be important resources for persons with disabilities.

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Resources

Geralis, E. (1991). Children with Cerebral Palsy, A Parent's Guide. Rockville, MD: Woodbine House. (Telephone: 1-800-843-732.)

Metzger, L. (1993). Barry's Sister. New York: Puffin. (A book for children ages 10 and up. The story line is about a child with cerebral palsy and his sister.) (Telephone: 1-800-253-6476.)

Weiss, S. (1993). Each of Us Remembers: Parents of Children with Cerebral Palsy Answer Your Questions. Washington, DC: United Cerebral Palsy Associations, Inc. (See address and telephone number below.)

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Organizations

United Cerebral Palsy Associations, Inc.

1660 L Street N.W., Suite 700
Washington, D.C. 20036
(202)776-0406; (202) 973-7197 (TT)
(800) 872-5827 (V/TT)
E-mail: ucpanatl@ucpa.org
Web Address: http://www.ucpa.org

Independent Living Research Utilization Project (ILRU) The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research

2323 South Sheppard, Suite 1000
Houston, TX 77019
(713) 520-0232; (713) 520-5136 (TT)
E-mail: ilru@bcm.tmc.edu
Web address: http://www.bcm.tmc.edu/ilru

National Easter Seal Society, Inc.

230 West Monroe Street, Suite 1800
Chicago, IL 60606
(312) 726-6200; (312) 726-4258 (TT)
(800) 221-6827
E-mail: nessinfo@seals.com
Web address: http://www.seals.com

National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC)

8455 Colesville Road
Suite 935
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3319
(301) 588-9284 (TT/Voice); (800) 346-2742
Web address: http://www.naric.com/naric

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Credits

Updated June 1997

This fact sheet is made possible through Cooperative Agreement #H030A30003 between the Academy for Educational Development and the Office of Special Education Programs. The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

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